(Charlie and Ira Louvin)
Friday, August 31, 2012
(Charlie and Ira Louvin)
We were sitting around a picnic table at Stanley’s Campgrounds outside of Ocean Isle Beach, N.C., drinking beer and George Dickel, playing poker, and telling tales when Richard walked over from a neighboring trailer.
It was decades ago, but I’ll never forget that night. I’m glad I wrote the details down in a journal.
He was dressed well although his shirttail hung out. A Lucky Strike dangled from his lips, and an unruly lock of hair nearly covered his right eye. He asked me about my guitar, an even then fairly beat-up Yamaha acoustic, which was leaning against a tree. We took turns playing a couple tunes, but then I stepped back and let him take over.
Music filled that summer night for the next couple of hours. I think Richard knew every song Jimmie Rogers and Hank Williams ever sang. You’re not going to believe this, but when he got to I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry and the part about the whippoorwill that “sounds too blue to fly” I swear I heard a whippoorwill cry out from the woods surrounding us.
Richard was 32, from Danville, Va., and on the run from the law for writing bad checks. “Hell, I just want to be free like everybody else,” he told us. “Up there you’re not. Here you are.”
I’ve been thinking about Richard ever since I read Charlie Louvin’s new autobiography Satan Is Real: The Ballad of the Louvin Brothers (itbooks/HarperCollins, 2012). Completed two months before the Grand Ole Opry legend died, it’s a book that takes you to the dark side, to the same world of those Louvin Brothers songs of the 1950s, songs of jealousy and murder, star-crossed lovers, loneliness and regret.
Here’s an example, a few lyrics from their classic, Knoxville Girl. As an unfaithful young woman begs for mercy from her jealous lover:
I only beat her more.
Until the ground around me
Within her blood did flow.
Heavy stuff! So are the tales Charlie Louvin weaves, particularly about his alcoholic older brother Ira, the duo’s mandolin player who ironically died in 1965 as the result of an automobile collision with a drunken driver. At one point, Ira was drinking “a fifth of whiskey a day, with beer on top of it.” In one incident, his third wife Faye shot him six times after he tried to strangle her with a telephone cord. He survived and a few days later, while still on a stretcher, visited the funeral home where the bodies of country stars Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins lay. They’d just died in a plane crash.
Long before Jimi Hendrix set his guitar on fire on stage, Ira would smash his mandolin into splinters in front of shocked audiences. It wasn’t an act. He was usually drunk and couldn’t tolerate an instrument if it got out of tune.
“He felt betrayed,” Charlie writes. “It was as if he thought they were doing it to him on purpose.”
You’d think Charlie and Ira’s encounter with Hank Williams at the Louisiana Hayride in Shreveport would have been enough to discourage too much boozing. “We stepped off the curb, and I saw a man lying by the sidewalk, dead drunk, puke running about five feet from his head down to the gutter.” The man was Hank Williams. “It was tragic to see. A man with the ability, talent, and future like the one he had, to see him waste it on the bottle.”
Satan Is Real—the title comes from one of the Louvin Brothers’ gospel albums—is more than a story of debauchery, however. The brothers grew up on a hardscrabble cotton farm in Depression-era Alabama, sons of a stern father who beat them “black and blue” for the slightest infraction and a music-loving mother who taught them old English ballads like Mary of the Wild Moor. Those ballads led to the boys’ music career, but they were hardly overnight successes. Their acceptance into the Opry came after many years of singing and many failed auditions.
Even before Ira died, Charlie had staked out his own solo career. He became a staple at the Opry, and I got to see him perform back in the early 1990s. In his book, he doesn’t have a whole lot of good things to say about the post-Roy Acuff Opry. “The longer you’ve been at the Opry, the worse they treat you.”
As for today’s music: “Country music ain’t country music now. The so-called country artists now get it as close to pop and rock as they can and still call it country.”
Likely he wasn’t talking about Jamie Johnson, Steve Earle, Alison Krauss. It’s still out there, just harder to find.
Who knows? Maybe Richard changed his name and became the toast of Nashville. Not likely, but it would make a great country song, wouldn’t it?
Saturday, August 25, 2012
Labor South roundup: Workers in N.C. and Miss. stand up for rights, plus an editorial on Southerners, Labor & the UAW in Mississippi
Here’s another Labor South roundup plus some editorial comments on Southerners, labor and the UAW.
Workers across the South are standing up for the rights as the nation’s two major political parties prepare for their national conventions, both to be held in the region.
Charlotte municipal workers picketing for their right to unite and speak as one voice
In Charlotte, N.C., municipal employees say they are having to work 12-hour days six and seven days a week as the city prepares for the Democratic National Convention Sept. 3, yet they are denied collective bargaining rights as a result of a North Carolina statute.
Minor infractions lead to 30-day suspensions, health and safety issues remain unresolved, and wages are kept to a minimal level, workers say.
“The hard work we do is vital for this city to function, so we are asking the City Council to address our needs and rights as workers and to establish a system of meet-and-confer with us to discuss how to keep the city running smoothly through the convention,” said sanitation worker and United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE) Local 150 President Al Locklear in a recent press release from the Southern Workers’ Assembly.
The local has joined with other unions and activists in the Southern Workers’ Assembly scheduled for Labor Day, Sept. 3, opening day of the convention.
North Carolina General Statute 95-98 prohibits public sector workers from engaging in collective bargaining. The statute, North Carolina’s right-to-work law, and the fact that North Carolina is the least unionized state in the nation have led to criticism among labor activists of the national Democratic Party’s choice of Charlotte for its convention.
City workers have been picketing the Charlotte city council in recent weeks in an effort to get it to recognize their basic rights to organize and petition for better wages and conditions.
Workers at a chicken-processing plant in Mississippi complain of miserable conditions
On the other side of the South, in Hazelhurst, Miss., officials with the Laborers International Union of North America Local 693 held a press conference recently to highlight the poor working conditions at the Sanderson Farms plant in Hazelhurst.
The 700 workers at the plant have to do their jobs in 100-degree-plus temperatures with minimal breaks, poor air-conditioning, and unsanitary bathrooms, Local 693 representatives said. They showed large photographs showing worker injuries as a result of the production demands at the plant.
Media efforts to get company responses to the complaints were unsuccessful.
Some editorial comments on Southern workers, labor, and the United Auto Workers’ effort to organize workers at the Nissan plan in Canton, Miss.
- (Veteran labor organizer Bruce Raynor)
On unions and the South: Labor South agrees with veteran Southern labor organizer Bruce Raynor that the South gets its anti-union reputation from its political and economic leadership, not from its workers. Look across Southern history, from the coal miners in Appalachia to textile workers in the Carolinas, catfish workers in Mississippi, and shipyard workers along the region’s coastlines, Southern workers have shown again and again not only a willingness but a desire to join together, in a union, so that they can speak as one voice.
- On the labor movement and the civil rights movement: A connection between labor and civil rights has been there since the beginning of both movements—from the sharing of songs such as We Shall Overcome to leaders such as A. Philip Randolph and Walter Reuther who were active in both movements. Here in Mississippi, state AFL-CIO leaders Claude Ramsay and Ray Smithhart worked hand-in-hand with civil rights leader Medgar Evers in the cause for justice and equality, whether at the voting booth, in schools, or at the workplace.
- What’s important for Nissan workers as they try to organize: Their biggest obstacle is fear. It’s the same obstacle that faced civil rights activists in the 1960s. It seems insurmountable at times, but thank goodness for the courage of Martin Luther King Jr., Medgar Evers, and others in bringing to the nation civil rights for all. The labor movement has its martyrs, too. In fact, too many, and one hopes, of course, that situations never get dire enough that one’s life is on the line. At Nissan, one’s livelihood may seem to be on the line, and that’s scary enough. However, workers’ rights are on the line, too, and those rights are worth fighting for.
- On the exploitation of Southern workers: Sadly there’s a long history of worker exploitation in the South. What was slavery after all? Free labor, the cheapest labor of all. After the Civil War effectively ended slavery, powerful forces regrouped and turned the Southern economy to another form of slavery, one to perpetual indebtedness in the form of sharecropping and tenant farming. In the aftermath of World War II, just as the South was emerging from its dependence on agriculture and turning to industry, its leaders made sure workers’ rights were not going to upset the applecart of their dominance. Thus we got the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 and state right-to-work laws across the land.
Thursday, August 16, 2012
A call to action has gone out to make this Labor Day, Sept. 3, also the opening day of the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., truly a day to recognize the struggle of workers in the nation’s least unionized and poorest paid region.
“Workers must let the big banks, corporations and both parties know that we as workers will continue building our powerful Southern movement that addresses our needs as workers and not corporate greed!” proclaims a statement issued from the Southern Workers Assembly, which plans a major presence at the DNC convention. “Enough is enough! We will organize, unionize, and fight back!”
Dante Strobino, an organizer with the North Carolina Public Service Workers Union, United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE) Local 150, said workers and activists from across the South will converge on Charlotte to let the nation and world know of their struggle in the region and in a state that is essentially “Wall Street South” and home to Bank of America, Wells Fargo Bank East and other major corporations.
“We have independent outside space where workers can speak out about crimes of right-to-work for less,” Strobino said in a recent e-mailed letter to me. “We also will be having a session there to dig in deeper to our organizing lessons, methods and experiences to help share practices and learn from each other’s work to organize in right-to-work states.”
The many endorsers of the assembly include: the Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC), Ken Riley of the International Longshoremen’s Association in Charleston, S.C., the Southwest Workers Union in San Antonio, Texas, the Mississippi Workers Center for Human Rights, representatives with the United Auto Workers, the North Carolina Triad Jobs With Justice, Black Workers for Justice, and The Labor Forum, WRFG 89.3FM, Atlanta.
A call to mobilization has gone out across the region.
The goals of the assembly include the following:
- Organizing a workers’ speak-out on Sept. 3 in Charlotte
- Developing an infrastructure utilizing social media and a newsletter to report on workers’ struggles across the South
- Creating a region-wide alliance of existing networks and coalitions as a step toward the founding of a Southern Workers Congress
- Gathering resources from national unions and other organizations for a Southern organizing campaign.
“We have such a great opportunity on our hands with the DNC coming to town, but we got to do some work to make sure the voices of real worker struggles and labor is heard,” Strobino said in a recent letter to a fellow activist.
Check out the group's interactive web site: http://southernworker.org.
Check out the group's interactive web site: http://southernworker.org.
Also on hand in Charlotte Sept. 3 will be another major group of activists, participants in the national No Papers, No Fear Ride for Justice. These are undocumented immigrants traveling across the country to heighen awareness of issues related to their fellow immigrants in the United States.
Some 300 people in the Memphis area this week came together for music and speeches during a stop in that city, and several joined the UndocuBus for the journey to Charlotte.
Tuesday, August 7, 2012
Actor Danny Glover to pro-union Nissan workers: "Medgar Evers would be right out here supporting you"
Coming soon to this blog is a look at the Southern Workers Assembly and its work in North Carolina in preparing for the opening day of the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., Sept. 3 (Labor Day).
Indeed, Evers, who was Mississippi NAACP field secretary when he was assassinated by white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith in 1963, worked closely with Mississippi AFL-CIO President Claude Ramsay and Secretary-Treasurer Ray Smithhart during the early 1960s.
Recent news stories worthy of mention:
- The Texas Observer's account of 81-year-old activist Ed Krueger in "educating (maquiladora) workers about labor laws in Mexico" and along the Texas-Mexico border. (August 2012 edition)
- The Memphis Flyer's story of homeless people in Memphis and the grassroots group, Homeless Organizing for Power and Equality (H.O.P.E.), that is helping them stand up for their rights and the dignity they deserve as human beings. (August 2-8 edition).
Below is a sidebar on actor Danny Glover I wrote to accompany my recent article on the UAW and Nissan in Mississippi.
(To the right if actor Danny Glover talking with Nissan workers as veteran labor organizer Bruce Raynor looks on. Behind Glover and to his left is UAW national organizer Sanchioni L. Butler. Apologies for the glaring light! Yours truly is still learning how to take a decent photograph and how to crop online!)
CANTON, Miss. - Actor Danny Glover told Nissan workers at the United Auto Workers office here recently that he had a special, personal reason for meeting with them and encouraging them in their push for a union election.
"When I see people win, they stand a little taller," he said during one of a day-long series of meetings with workers, community activists and UAW representatives. "I do have an ulterior motive. I want people to win. People lifting themselves up—I'm always blown away by that."
The veteran movie star has thrown himself into the effort to secure an election at the 3,300-worker plant for representation by the UAW. He said he's already talking about Canton during television appearances and at other functions. He was accompanied in Jackson by veteran labor organizer Bruce Raynor.
Glover talked of how labor unions have helped workers through history, about Mississippi's history and the labor movement's ties to the Civil Rights Movement. He cited the examples of leaders such as A. Philip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and slain Mississippi civil-rights activist Medgar Evers.
"I'm here to be a part of what you're doing. No movement is immune from support from the outside. ... You are not alone," Glover said. "... I think about Medgar Evers. He was only 37 years old when he died. Medgar Evers would be right out here supporting you."
Indeed, Evers, who was Mississippi NAACP field secretary when he was assassinated by white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith in 1963, worked closely with Mississippi AFL-CIO President Claude Ramsay and Secretary-Treasurer Ray Smithhart during the early 1960s.
Workers told Glover that they face a 1960s-like fear among many at the Nissan plant.
Overcoming fear and old attitudes is the great challenge in any organizing campaign, Glover said. That's why it's important for workers to know they have support in the community and beyond. "We're never alone," he said. "People need to know they don't have to be afraid."
Glover, who grew up in San Francisco but whose mother was a Southerner from Georgia, said he comes from a union family. "I had health care all my life because the union created the situation where I could have health care," he said.
Union members "work hard," he continued. "You're not asking for a handout. The idea that all of you want to sit around and do nothing is ludicrous."
Glover reminded workers that they "are all part of a much larger legacy" and to remember if they vote in a union "it is your union."
Finally, he left them with a prediction: The world is going to know about Canton. "Your story is going to resonate."
Friday, August 3, 2012
This ran as the cover story for the July 18-24 edition of the Jackson Free Press in Jackson, Miss. Related stories also included sidebars on Danny Glover's visit and Mississippi's financial investment in the Nissan plant. The Sidney Hillman Foundation in New York designated this as one of the nation's top stories of the week.
CANTON, Miss. – Michael Carter hardly evokes the Hollywood image of a podium-pounding, fire-breathing labor agitator. With his dark blue “New York” cap, light blue knit shirt, slight build and soft-spoken voice, he looks like what he is: a 38-year-old working man, husband and father of two.
He’s talking with me in the United Auto Workers’ newly opened office just off Nissan Parkway and within view of the 3.5 million square-foot Nissan plant. On the wall behind him is a framed, black-and-white photograph of Martin Luther King Jr. Prominent among the crowd of men close to King is Walter Reuther, the legendary labor leader who helped found the modern-day UAW, a man Barry Goldwater once denounced as a “dangerous menace” and arch-conservative Jackson (Miss.) Clarion-Ledger columnist Tom Ethridge blasted in 1964 as “top labor-fuehrer”.
Carter has never been a member of a union, never thought he’d ever want or need to join one, but he also never forgot what a union card meant to his father. “I learned more about it when my dad got injured on the job. He worked with the railroad. When he hurt his back, they tried to say he was drinking, and he wasn’t. The union fought for him, and he got his full benefits and retirement.
(To the right is Nissan worker Michael Carter)
“I kind of began to understand at that point.”
Nine years ago, when Carter landed a much-sought-after job with the $1.4 billion Nissan plant in Canton, joining a union was the farthest thing from his mind. “You had good benefits, good pay, … an illusion of community.”
Today, the Tupelo, Miss., native earns $23 an hour as a production technician at Nissan. It’s a good wage in a state with the lowest per capita income in the nation, some $15,000 more a year than the average Mississippian.
However, Carter is not only thinking and talking union these days, he’s one of growing number at the 3,300-worker plant who’ve taken a lead in calling for an election to determine whether he and his colleagues should join the United Auto Workers.
He tries to piece together for me the path that led him to want to be a union man, just like his dad.
Maybe it started with the company’s changes in his health care benefits. “They said too many people were going to the emergency room.” He soon found his premiums going up and his deductible jump from zero to $2,500. “I had a spot on my leg, and the doctor wanted surgery in case it was cancer. I filed for insurance, and they didn’t pay any of the bill. They said, `You haven’t made your deductible.’ It was $800. I thought they’d pay some of it.”
As for his wages, they’re good, but he hasn’t had a raise in years-- he feels he’s “topped out” at $23 an hour--and there’s little or no chance for promotion. Meanwhile, the line speed has increased on the shop floor, production requirements going up even at times when the workweek is cut back. “We asked why did it go up if we cut back to four days. They didn’t really give us an answer.”
And that’s at the heart of the problem.
“You don’t have a conversation. No feedback. No answer. When they told us about the new (health) plan, the deductible, they couldn’t explain it. There’s no relationship.”
What he and other workers do get from management, he says, is a lot of talk about how horrible unions are. Whether it’s focus meetings or one-on-one sessions, the message is always the same: “Ain’t nothing good about a union.”
Carter has a hard time digesting that message. “I say that can’t be true. There’s good in anything.”
(To the right is Nissan worker Jeffrey Moore)
Fellow technician Jeffrey Moore, 34, a 10-year veteran who earns the same hourly wage as Carter, says his interest in the UAW “is not about money, it’s all just about being fair,” even though he wonders why he hasn’t had a pay raise since 2006 and why workers at Nissan’s Smyrna, Tenn., plant typically make $2 or more an hour than Canton workers. “I have a daughter and a wife. That’s another reason I want a union. I want to retire at Nissan and make sure they’re okay.”
Lee Ruffin, 45, a nine-year veteran technician, is another Nissan employee talking union. “Everything was fine, everything good, until 2005 and 2006 things started going downhill. Losing benefits, insurance, increasing line speed, which is a safety hazard, people getting hurt on the job, lots of strains and sprangs.
“Governor Bryant needs to come down and work and see for himself.”
Of course, Carter, Moore and Ruffin aren’t holding their breath for that to happen. Bryant didn’t respond to several requests for interviews for this story, but he warned recently in a speech in Oxford, Miss., that unions would have a negative effect on the auto industry in the South and he would encourage groups to actively oppose unionization.
The governor is part of a powerful phalanx of business, political and media leaders that stands in total opposition to any hint of a union in Mississippi’s automobile industry. “We don’t believe a union is needed up there,” says Jay Moon, president and CEO of the Mississippi Manufacturers Association. “We don’t believe the union would provide any benefits that the workers don’t have already.”
Many Mississippians agree. “I just have a problem with unions in general,” says Nelwyn Madison, 66, of Madison, Miss., a former part owner of a software business in the Jackson area. She admits her direct contacts with unions have been limited. “I just absolutely do not think employees have a right to tell employers how to run a company. If you don’t like where you are working, then you need to go somewhere else.”
Nissan officials certainly agree. “We feel the best way to interact with employees is through direct, two-way communication as opposed to involving a third party,” Nissan spokesman Travis Parman says. “This approach to employee relations has been very successful, resulting in a healthy and positive work environment, and encourages the free exchange of ideas.”
Carter begs to differ. “They says there’s an open door, but you may not get an answer to your question.”
A legendary union and a powerful corporation square off
These testimonies from the two sides of the union question at the Nissan plant in Canton are early volleys in what promises to be a landmark battle, a high-stakes squaring off that could become global in scope. For the UAW, Canton is key to a $60 million plan to establish its footprint in the South and beyond. At the center of the union’s strategy is to have Nissan agree to a set of “Fair Election Principles” that allow both sides equal time in presenting their case to workers. Union leaders stress they respect Nissan and want the company to be financially successful.
However, if Nissan refuses to engage in a “fair election”—and CEO Carlos Ghosn’s long record of intense antagonism to U.S. unions indicates it most certainly will—the UAW takes its case to a world stage. UAW officials have talked of a consumer boycott on a scale not seen since the grape boycott that established Cesar Chavez’s United Farmer Workers in the late 1960s. Expect workers and community activists carrying banners and passing out leaflets at Nissan dealerships across the land. The Canton story will even be heard at global auto shows.
Just this week a Nissan-Canton worker accompanied UAW President Bob King to Brazil to speak to Brazilian trade unionists there. UAW representatives are meeting regularly with trade unionists in Brazil, Japan, Germany, France and other countries.
(To the left is student activist Tyson Jackson)
The UAW Global Organizing Institute is already drawing interns from around the nation and world to Canton to help coordinate a social media networking and organizing effort. “There is a silent storm brewing in people, and the rain is going to start coming down,” says Tyson Jackson, 31, one of those interns, a Tougaloo College student from Champaign, Ill.
“Here I can feel the fear of the workers,” says Luara Scalasarra, another intern and a labor law student from the Estate University of Londrina in Brazil. “In Brazil, they don’t even need to vote. They can just form a union. But it is really good this campaign here. I really believe in this campaign.”
The UAW is preparing the same kind of “corporate campaign” that recently forced the Reynolds American tobacco giant finally to agree to meet with the Farm Labor Organizing Committee in North Carolina. A similar campaign by workers at the Smithfield pork processing plant in Tar Heel, N.C., in 2009 led to their victory in joining the United Food and Commercial Workers.
On the other side, however, is a potential formidable foe, the world’s fourth-largest automaker, whose CEO and president once warned Nissan workers in Smyrna in a required meeting on the day before a union election that “bringing a union into Smyrna could result in making Smyrna not competitive, which is not in your best interest or Nissan’s.” Workers voted down the union.
Carlos Ghosn, a Brazilian of Lebanese descent who also is a French citizen and British knight, enjoys comic-book hero status in Japan for his role as the “turnaround” artist who saved once-struggling Nissan. To many in France, he’s the villainous “cost killer” who shut down plants and slashed jobs on his rise to the top, and who more recently oversaw the implementation of harsh workplace demands at Nissan’s French partner Renault that are believed to have contributed to several suicides and suicide attempts between 2005 and 2008.
Onto this battlefield have marched Mississippi workers like Carter, Moore, and Ruffin, proclaiming they’re never going to be heard unless they speak as one voice. In the heart of the conservative, “right-to-work” South—a term labor activists ridicule as really meaning “right to work for less”--they want to do what the Wagner Act of 1935 gave them full and protected legal rights to do: join a union.
They aren’t the first Nissan workers to talk this way. Back in 2007, James Fisher, Yvette Taylor and Stanley Martin challenged at public meetings the Camelot image of one of Mississippi’s premier manufacturers. They told of terminations for job-related injuries, intimidation, and anti-union propaganda. Workers at Nissan’s Smyrna plant also came to testify to humiliations and a caustic disregard for work-related injuries and illnesses.
“Nissan’s got this big halo, this rainbow over them,” Fisher said at the time. “It’s all on the outside. We have to fight tooth and nail on the inside. They can do what they want to on the inside. It’s always somebody trying to cut somebody’s throat.”
On hand was a wide range of religious and former civil rights leaders and community and political activists who became the seed of a grassroots movement that has now ripened to the point that the UAW can say, “Now is the time.” Canton, Mississippi, is the place where it will stake its future, and perhaps even the future of the nation’s labor movement.
UAW fighting for its life and its future
UAW officials insist they’re here because Nissan workers want them here, that this is a worker-and-community-fueled effort. Certainly workers have reached out. What can’t be denied, however, is the UAW is in a fight for its survival. It must not only staunch the bleeding that has reduced its membership by 75 percent in the last 30 years—from 1.5 million in 1979 to less than 400,000 today, but also once again thrive and grow in a new economy is making the South what Detroit once was in the automobile industry.
Speculation about where the UAW would focus its do-or-die campaign has been heated in the labor and automobile press since January 2011, when UAW President King revealed the union was coming to Dixie come hell or high water. Early reports pointed to the Volkswagen plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., the Hyundai plant in Alabama, or the Toyota plant in Kentucky as Ground Zero. “If we lose, we’ll die quicker. If we win, we rebuild the UAW,” King told Labor Notes.
King said something prescient even earlier in his October 2010 statement to mark the One Nation March in Washington, D.C.: “We cannot sit back and wait for change to happen. We are the ones who must make change on behalf of all people. Every great achievement for social justice has been the result of the mobilization of people to achieve a just purpose.”
With such oratory, King, who took over the UAW presidency in June 2010, evokes the memory of another eloquent speaker, Walter Reuther, who braved brutal attacks by anti-union goons at his home and in the famous “Battle of the Overpass” at the Ford Company’s River Rouge plant in Michigan in 1937 to put the UAW at the forefront of the nation’s labor movement. In contrast to many other labor leaders, Reuther later embraced the civil rights movement and stood with Martin Luther King Jr. on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington in 1963.
In many ways, today’s South is a far cry from the South Walter Reuther knew. It emerged from its bloody and futile resistance to civil rights in the 1960s to become the heart of the “Sunbelt”, encouraging industry and investment, and eventually “Detroit South”, which along with the Midwest is home to more than a dozen foreign-owned automobile assembly plants plus many other parts factories. What hasn’t changed in the South, however, is the hostility of its political and business leaders to unions.
Despite union contracts at plants at their home countries, none of the German and Asian-owned plants in the region is unionized, a glaring reality to a UAW that has had to make concession after concession to the Big Three in this struggling economy and witness the subsequent downward pull on worker wages and benefits everywhere.
The UAW is no stranger to the South. In fact, a sit-down strike at General Motors’ Lakewood plant in Atlanta in November 1936 became the first shot fired in the historic all-out “Battle of the Running Bulls” that would take place in Flint, Mich., in early 1937, an event that rivals the “Battle of the Overpass” in importance in UAW history. More recently, in 2003 and 2004, the union won major organizing campaigns with Freightliner workers in North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia. In fact, the UAW scored victories at smaller companies in Alabama and Kentucky within the past month.
The UAW actually has been in Canton since 2005. In March of that year, then-UAW President Ron Gettelfinger and then-Vice President and National Organizing Director Bob King came to Mississippi to meet with workers and community leaders.
It wasn’t until recently, however, that the union firmly decided Canton would be “the perfect place” to take its stand, as UAW Region 8 Director Gary Casteel, an Alabama native whose region includes the South, describes it.
Casteel lobbied hard to make Canton the UAW’s choice even though he knew “there’s no guarantee to win.” He and others emphasize that race isn’t a central issue, but the fact that an estimated 80 percent of the workforce at the Canton plant is black was a factor. Studies show blacks are comparatively more open to joining unions.
Mississippi’s rich civil rights history was another factor. Organized labor as a whole needs to recapture its identity as a social movement, something it had in the 1930s but had lost by the 1950s.
“I had to advocate hard for this,” Casteel told me in a recent telephone interview. “We have tremendous worker support there. Nissan hired a heavily African-American workforce. I think that is a plus because of the history and the battles fought in Mississippi against all odds. Being from Alabama, knowing how this works in the South, it is just one of those things, the heritage of Mississippi. They have had to fight for the things they have achieved.”
Unionizing the South: A long struggle
A fight is what it will take in the South, a region where coal miners and textile workers in the 1920s and 1930s saw their efforts to join unions brutally suppressed. In 1946, when Congress of Industrial Organizations president Philip Murray launched “Operation Dixie” to organize Southern workers, he spoke of a “civil rights crusade” that would be “the most important drive of its kind ever undertaken by any labor organization in the history of the country.” Labor organizers fanned across the South, targeting textile, oil, lumber and other industries. Even in 1946 they knew the South was key to labor’s future.
Operation Dixie ended largely in failure, however, as the region’s power elite locked arms and exploited the racial divide and post-World War II fear of communism to keep workers from joining unions. Today the South remains the nation’s least unionized--and least paid--region, a uniformly “right to work” land where organizing is doubly difficult because workers can enjoy the hard-earned gains in wages and benefits of a unionized workplace without having to join the union.
(To the left is veteran labor organizer Bruce Raynor during a recent visit to Canton)
Still, the South’s anti-union reputation never had a thing to do with the workers themselves, says Bruce Raynor, perhaps the most successful labor organizer in Southern history. The hostility to unions comes primarily from the South’s political, business, and media establishment, he told me in a recent telephone interview.
“I have always found Southern workers very receptive. It takes persistence. They are up against the powers that be. Southern workers don’t like being pushed around, being taken advantage of.”
A native New Yorker and president emeritus of Workers United, Raynor worked with the Textile Workers Union of America in the 1970s in the history-making struggle with the powerful anti-union textile firm of J.P. Stevens. That struggle, vividly depicted in the film Norma Rae, led to victory after a corporate campaign that included a national boycott, court challenges, and a high-level public relations effort to embarrass the company into recognizing workers’ rights.
“With J.P. Stevens, people thought it was hopeless,” Raynor recalled. “They ran the state, the local community.”
However, the secret to victory is community, he said. “As long as the union lets it be driven by the community, and also involving the religious community. Southerners tend to be religious people. It was the same way in the civil rights movement.”
Recognition of that need motivated the June 3 press conference in Canton where U.S. Rep. Bennie Thompson, D-Miss., Mississippi NAACP President Derrick Johnson, General Missionary Baptist State Convention President Isiac Johnson and others stood alongside a group of Nissan workers to pledge their support for a fair election at the plant. Thompson made it clear that he will monitor Nissan’s behavior closely in the months ahead.
As in the past, the biggest obstacle organizers face is fear.
“They have these anti-union meetings—they call them focus meetings,” Michael Carter says. “They say, `we’re going to give you the facts. If you have a union, we’ll close the plant.’”
Workers also fear their jobs may be eliminated or re-classified. The company depends heavily on so-called “temps”, workers hired on a less-than-fulltime basis with more limited pay and benefits. UAW officials say the 1,000 new jobs Nissan recently announced it was adding to the Canton plant will all be “temps”. “There’s a fear they’ll make our jobs temps,” says Jeffrey Moore.
Nissan spokesman Travis Parman discounts such fears. “Our communications meetings with employees are not new. We continuously and routinely meet with our employees to openly discuss matters pertinent to our business.”
As for the “temps” issue, Parman says, “Our direct and contract positions are long-term jobs that offer competitive pay and benefits. … Nissan has never laid off a single employee in the nearly 30 years it’s had manufacturing operations in the U.S.”
Like all Americans, Southerners have had a realistic fear of plant shutdowns and relocations to Mexico and China ever since the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994. They’ve seen it happen again and again. The textile and apparel industries alone suffered the erosion of more than 700,000 jobs between 1994 and 2003.
Sujit CanagaRetna, senior fiscal analyst with the Southern office of the Council of State Governments in Atlanta and an expert in the Southern auto industry, believes the UAW will have an uphill fight to convince Southern workers a union will better their lot. However, he says, auto workers should not fear the kind of shutdowns that devastated the Southern textile industry. “That is always the boogeyman, but it is not that easy,” CanagaRetna says. “That is an unlikely scenario. I think there would be negotiated settlements. I don’t think we run the risk of Nissan closing shop and leaving.”
The foreign transplants’ advantages in the South are too numerous, he says. Their proximity to major markets, ports and other transportation, and an established network of suppliers would override concerns about a union. Furthermore, he says, unions have changed. For example, UAW leader King has distanced himself from many of the old work rules and other factors that management scorned as impediments to productivity and profitability. “The whole environment has changed in terms of union versus nonunion environment,” CanagaRetna says. “It has become much more of a collaborative process.”
Mark Klinedinst, professor emeritus of economics at the University of Southern Mississippi, believes unions actually benefit a company as well as workers. “Typically unions have been in the forefront in getting better wages, benefits, working conditions. That is a very honorable tradition. It helps make for a stronger middle class. I think it is important as corporations get larger, that employees have a chance to have a voice as well. Modern management says that in all parts of an institution important stakeholders should have a voice. Unions could offer that channel.”
The prosperity the nation enjoyed from the 1940s through the 1960s came at a time when union representation was at its highest, Klinedinst says. “We’d be helped by having a stronger middle class.”
Certainly the folks at the UAW would agree, and so would workers like Michael Carter, Jeffrey Moore and Lee Ruffin. Nissan officials believe their workers already have the tools to make a strong middle class.
One of the most famous labor ballads of the 1930s asked the age-old question: “Which Side Are You On?” It’s a question waiting for an answer in Canton, Mississippi.